1) What is a link?

A link is a connection between two devices. It includes cable types and protocols for one device to communicate with another device.

2) What is the level of the OSI reference model?

There are 7 OSI layers: physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer and application layer.

3) What is the backbone network?

The backbone network is a centralized infrastructure designed to distribute different routes and data to various networks. It also handles bandwidth management and various channels.

4) What is a LAN?

LAN is an abbreviation for LAN. It refers to the connection between a computer and other network devices located in a small physical location.

5) What is a node?

A node is the point at which a connection occurs. It can be a computer or device that is part of the network. In order to form a network connection, two or more nodes are required.

6) What is a router?

A router can connect two or more network segments. These are intelligent network devices that store information in their routing tables, such as paths, hop counts, and so on. With this information, they can determine the best path for data transmission. The router runs at the OSI network layer.

7) What is a point-to-point link?

It refers to a direct connection between two computers on the network. In addition to connecting the cable to the NIC card of both computers, the point-to-point connection does not require any other network equipment.

8) What is anonymous FTP?

Anonymous FTP is a way to give users access to files on a public server. Users who are allowed to access data from these servers do not need to identify themselves, but instead log in as an anonymous guest.

9) What is a subnet mask?

The subnet mask is combined with the IP address to identify two parts: the extended network address and the host address. Like an IP address, the subnet mask consists of 32 bits.

10) What is the maximum length allowed for the UTP cable?

A single section of a UTP cable has an allowable length of 90 to 100 meters. This limitation can be overcome by using repeaters and switches

11) What is data encapsulation?

Data encapsulation is the process of breaking down information into smaller manageable blocks before transmitting it over the network. In this process, the source and destination addresses are appended to the header along with the parity.

12) Describe the network topology

Network topology refers to the layout of a computer network. It shows the physical layout of the devices and cables and how they are connected to each other.

13) What is a VPN?

VPN means virtual private network, a technology that allows secure channels to be created over a network such as the Internet.

For example, VPN allows you to establish a secure dial-up connection to a remote server.

14) Briefly describe NAT.

NAT is a network address translation. This is a protocol that provides a way for multiple computers on a public network to share a single connection to the Internet.

15) What is the work of the network layer under the OSI reference model?

The network layer is responsible for data routing, packet switching and network congestion control. The router runs under this layer.

16) How does the network topology affect your decision when building your network?

The network topology determines what medium the interconnect device must use. It also serves as the basis for the materials, connectors and terminals that are suitable for setup.

17) What is RIP?

RIP, short for routing information protocol, is used by routers to send data from one network to another.

It effectively manages routing data by broadcasting its routing table to all other routers in the network. It determines the network distance in hops.

18) What are the different ways to protect a computer network?

There are several ways to do this. Install reliable and updated antivirus programs on all computers. Make sure the firewall is set up and configured correctly. User authentication will also be of great help. All of these combinations will form a highly secure network.

19) What is a NIC?

The NIC is an abbreviation for Network Interface Card (NIC). This is connected to the PC to connect to the network Shenbei. Each NIC has its own MAC address that identifies the PC on the network.

20) What is WAN?

WAN stands for WAN. It is the interconnection of geographically dispersed computers and devices. It connects to networks located in different regions and countries.

21) What is the importance of the OSI physical layer?

The physical layer performs the conversion from data bits to electrical signals and vice versa. This is a consideration and setting for network equipment and cable types.

22) How many layers are there under TCP/IP?

There are four layers: network layer, Internet layer, transport layer and application layer.

23) What are proxy servers and how do they protect the computer network?

The proxy server primarily prevents external users from identifying the IP address of the internal network. I don’t know the correct IP address, or even the physical location of the network. The proxy server can make the network almost invisible to external users.

24) What is the function of the OSI session layer?

This layer provides protocols and methods for two devices on the network to communicate with each other by holding sessions. This includes setting up the session, managing the exchange of information during the session, and the process of releasing the session.

25) What is the importance of implementing a fault-tolerant system? Limited?

Fault tolerant systems ensure continuous data availability. This is achieved by eliminating single points of failure. However, in some cases, this type of system will not be able to protect data, such as accidental deletion.

26) What does 10Base-T mean?

10 is the data transfer rate, which is 10 Mbps in this case. “Base” means the baseband. T stands for twisted pair, which is the cable used for this network.

27) What is a private IP address?

A private IP address is assigned to the intranet. These addresses are used on the internal network and cannot be routed on the external public network. These ensure that there are no conflicts between the internal networks, and the range of private IP addresses can be reused across multiple internal networks because they do not “see” each other.

28) What is NOS?

NOS or network operating systems are specialized software whose primary task is to provide a network connection to a computer so that it can communicate with other computers and connected devices.

29) What is DoS?

A DoS or denial of service attack is an attempt to prevent users from accessing the Internet or any other network service. This type of attack can take a different form and consist of a group of permanent people. A common way to do this is to overload the system server so that it can no longer process legitimate traffic and will be forced to reset.

30) What is OSI and what role does it play in the computer network?

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) serves as a reference model for data communication. It consists of seven layers, each of which defines specific aspects of how network devices connect and communicate with each other. One layer can handle the physical media used, while the other layer indicates how the data is actually transmitted over the network.

31) What is the purpose of the cable being shielded and twisted?

Its main purpose is to prevent crosstalk. Crosstalk is electromagnetic interference or noise that can affect data transmitted over a cable.

32) What are the advantages of address sharing?

Address sharing provides an inherent security advantage by using address translation instead of routing. This is because hosts on the Internet can only see the public IP address of the external interface on the computer providing the address translation, not the private IP address on the internal network.

33) What is a MAC address?

MAC or media access control that uniquely identifies devices on the network. It is also known as a physical address or an Ethernet address. The MAC address consists of 6 bytes.

34) What is the equivalent layer or layers of the TCP/IP application layer in terms of the OSI reference model?

The TCP/IP application layer actually has three peers on the OSI model: the session layer, the presentation layer, and the application layer.

35) How do I identify the IP class for a given IP address?

By looking at the first octet of any given IP address, you can identify whether it is a Class A, Class B, or Class C. If the first octet begins with a 0 bit, the address is Class A. If starting with bit 10, the address is a class B address. If starting at 110, it is a Class C network.

36) What is the main purpose of OSPF?

OSPF or Open Shortest Path First is a link state routing protocol that uses a routing table to determine the best path for data exchange.

37) What is a firewall?

The firewall is used to protect the internal network from external attacks. These external threats may be hackers who want to steal data or computer viruses and can immediately eliminate the data. It also prevents other users from the external network from accessing the private network.

38) Describe the star topology

The star topology consists of a central hub connected to the node. This is one of the easiest settings and maintenance.

39) What is a gateway?

A gateway provides a connection between two or more network segments. It is usually a computer that runs gateway software and provides translation services. This translation is the key to allowing different systems to communicate over the network.

40) What are the disadvantages of star topology?

One major drawback of the star topology is that once the central hub or switch is damaged, the entire network becomes unavailable.

41) What is SLIP?

The SLIP or Serial Line Interface Protocol is actually an old protocol developed early in UNIX. This is one of the protocols for remote access.

42) Give some examples of private network addresses., subnet mask is, subnet mask is

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43) What is tracert?

Tracert is a Windows utility that can be used to track the routing of data from the router to the target network. It also shows the number of hops taken during the entire transmission route.

44) What is the function of the network administrator?

Network administrators have a number of responsibilities that can be summarized into three key functions: installing the network, configuring network settings, and maintaining/resolving the network.

45) Describe a shortcoming of peer-to-peer networks.

When you are accessing a resource that is shared by a workstation on the network, the performance of that workstation is degraded.

46) What is a hybrid network?

A hybrid network is a network setup that leverages client-server and peer-to-peer architectures.

47) What is DHCP?

DHCP is an abbreviation for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Its main task is to automatically assign IP addresses to devices on the network. It first checks the next available address that is not occupied by any device and then assigns it to the network device.

48) What is the main job of ARP?

The main task of the ARP or Address Resolution Protocol is to map known IP addresses to MAC layer addresses.

49) What is TCP/IP?

TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This is a set of protocol layers designed to exchange data on different types of computer networks (also known as heterogeneous networks).

50) How to use the router to manage the network?

The router has a built-in console that allows you to configure different settings such as security and data logging. You can assign restrictions to your computer, such as resources that you are allowed to access, or a specific time of day when you can browse the Internet.

You can even impose restrictions on sites that are not visible across the network.


51) What protocol can I apply when transferring files on different platforms, such as UNIX systems and Windows servers?

File transfer between these different servers using FTP (File Transfer Protocol). This is possible because FTP is platform independent.

52) What is the use of the default gateway?

The default gateway provides a way for the local network to connect to the external network. The default gateway used to connect to an external network is usually the address of the external router port.

53) One way to protect your network is to use a password. What can be considered a good password?

Good passwords are not only composed of letters, but also a combination of letters and numbers. Passwords that combine uppercase and lowercase letters are more advantageous than passwords that use all uppercase letters or all lowercase letters. Passwords must not be easily guessed by hackers, such as dates, names, favorites, and more.

54) What is the correct termination rate for UTP cables?

The normal termination of the unshielded twisted pair cable is 100 ohms.

55) What is netstat?

Netstat is a command line utility. It provides useful information about connecting current TCP/IP settings.

56) What is the number of network IDs in a Class C network?

For Class C networks, the number of available network ID bits is 21. The number of possible network IDs is 2, increasing to 21 or 2,097,152. The number of host IDs per network ID is 2, increasing to 8 minus 2, or 254.

57) What happens when you use a cable longer than the specified length?

Too long a cable can cause loss of signal. This means that data transmission and reception will be affected because the signal length is reduced.

58) What common software problems can cause network defects?

Software related issues can be any one or combination of the following:

– Client server problem

– Application conflicts

– Configuration error

– Protocol does not match

– safe question

– User policy and rights issues

59) What is ICMP?

ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. It provides messaging and communication for protocols within the TCP/IP stack. This is also the protocol for managing error messages used by network tools such as PING.

60) What is Ping?

Ping is a utility that allows you to check the connections between network devices on your network. You can ping your device with its IP address or device name (such as computer name).

61) What is peer-to-peer (P2P)?

Peer is a network that does not reply on the server. All PCs on this network are separate workstations.

62) What is DNS?

DNS is a domain name system. The main function of this network service is to provide a host name for TCP/IP address resolution.

63) What are the advantages of fiber optics and other media?

One of the main advantages of fiber optics is that it is less susceptible to electrical interference. It also supports higher bandwidth, meaning more data can be sent and received. Long-distance signal degradation is also very small.

64) What is the difference between a hub and a switch?

The hub acts as a multiport repeater. However, as more and more devices connect to it, it will not be able to effectively manage traffic through it. The switch provides a better alternative to improve performance, especially when high traffic is expected on all ports.

65) What are the different network protocols supported by the Windows RRAS service?

Three main network protocols are supported: NetBEUI, TCP/IP and IPX.

66) What are the largest networks and hosts in Class A, B, and C networks?

For Class A, there are 126 possible networks and 16,777,214 hosts

For Class B, there are 16,384 possible networks and 65,534 hosts

For class C, there are 2,097,152 possible networks and 254 hosts

67) What is the standard color order of the straight-through cable?

Orange/White, Orange, Green/White, Blue, Blue/White, Green, Brown/White, Brown.

68) What protocol falls under the application layer of the TCP/IP stack?

The following are the TCP/IP application layer protocols: FTP, TFTP, Telnet, and SMTP.

69) You need to connect two computers for file sharing. Can I do this without using a hub or router?

Yes, you can connect two computers together using a single cable. In this case, a crossover cable can be used. In this setup, the data transfer pin of one cable is connected to the data receive pin of the other cable and vice versa.

70) What is ipconfig?

Ipconfig is a utility that is commonly used to identify the address information of computers on a network. It can display the physical address as well as the IP address.

71) What is the difference between straight-through and crossover cables?

A straight-through cable is used to connect a computer to a switch, hub, or router. A crossover cable is used to connect two similar devices, such as a PC to a PC or a hub to a hub.

72) What is a client/server?

A client/server is a type of network in which one or more computers act as servers. The server provides a centralized repository of resources such as printers and files. A client is a workstation that accesses a server.

73) Describe the network.

Network refers to the interconnection between computers and peripheral devices used for data communication. The network connection can be made using a wired cable or via a wireless link.

74) Is the MAC address transferred when moving the NIC card from one PC to another?

Yes, that’s because the MAC address is hardwired to the NIC circuit, not the PC. This also means that the PC can have a different MAC address when the NIC card is replaced by another.

75) Explain cluster support

Cluster support refers to the ability of a network operating system to connect multiple servers in a fault-tolerant group. The main purpose of this is to continue all processing in the event of a server failure, the next server in the cluster.

76) Where is the best place to install an antivirus program on a network with two servers and twenty workstations?

Antivirus programs must be installed on all servers and workstations to ensure protection. This is because individual users can access any workstation and introduce a computer virus when plugging in a removable hard drive or flash drive.

77) Describe Ethernet.

Ethernet is one of the popular networking technologies used today. It was developed in the early 1970s and is based on specifications specified in the IEEE. Ethernet is used in the LAN.

78) What are the disadvantages of implementing a ring topology?

If a workstation on the network fails, the entire network may be lost. Another disadvantage is that when adjustments and reconfigurations need to be made in specific parts of the network, the entire network must also be temporarily shut down.

79) What is the difference between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA?

CSMA/CD or collision detection, resending data frames whenever a collision occurs. CSMA/CA or collision avoidance will first broadcast the intended transmission before the data is transmitted.

80) What is SMTP?

SMTP is an abbreviation for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The protocol handles all internal mail and provides the necessary mail delivery services on the TCP/IP stack.

81) What is multicast routing?

Multicast routing is a targeted form of broadcast that sends a message to a selected group of users instead of sending it to all users on the subnet.

82) What is the importance of encryption on the network?

Encryption is the process of converting information into code that is not readable by the user. It is then translated or decrypted back to its normal readable format using a secret key or password. Encryption helps ensure that the information intercepted in the middle is still unreadable because the user must have the correct password or key.

83) How to arrange and display the IP address?

The IP address is displayed as a series of four decimal digits separated by periods or points. Another term for this arrangement is the dotted decimal format. An example is

84) Explain the importance of certification.

Authentication is the process of verifying user credentials before they log on to the network. It is usually done with a username and password. This provides a secure means of limiting access from harmful intruders on the network.

85) What does tunnel mode mean?

This is a data exchange mode in which two communication computers themselves do not use IPSec. In contrast, a gateway that connects a LAN to a transit network creates a virtual tunnel that uses the IPSec protocol to protect all communications passing through it.

86) What are the different technologies involved in establishing a WAN link?

Analog connection – use regular telephone line; digital connection – use digital telephone line; exchange connection – use multiple sets of links between sender and receiver to move data.

87) What is the advantage of a mesh topology?

In the event of a link failure, there will always be another link available. A mesh topology is actually one of the most fault tolerant network topologies.

88) What are the common hardware related issues that can occur when troubleshooting computer networks?

Most networks consist of hardware. Problems in these areas may include hard disk failures, NIC damage, and even hardware startup. Incorrect hardware configuration is also a difficult problem.

89) What can be done to fix the signal attenuation problem?

A common way to deal with this problem is to use repeaters and hubs as it will help regenerate the signal and prevent signal loss. It is also necessary to check that the cable is properly terminated.

90) How does the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assist in network management?

Instead of having to access each client computer to configure a static IP address, network administrators can apply the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol to create a pool of IP addresses called scopes that can be dynamically assigned to clients.

91) Explain the overview of the network concept?

Profiles are the configuration settings that are set for each user. For example, you can create a profile that puts users in a group.

92) What is Sneakernet?

Sneakernet is considered to be the earliest form of networking in which physical data is transferred using removable media such as disks and tapes.

93) What is the role of IEEE in computer networks?

The IEEE or the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is an organization of engineers published and managed by electrical and electronic equipment standards. This includes network devices, network interfaces, cablings and connectors.

94) What protocols are there under the TCP/IP Internet layer?

There are four protocols managed by this layer. These are ICMP, IGMP, IP and ARP.

95) When it comes to the network, what is the authority?

Permissions are licenses that perform specific actions on the network. Each user on the network can assign personal rights, depending on what the user must allow.

96) What is a basic requirement for establishing a VLAN?

A VLAN is required because there is only one broadcast domain at the switch level, which means that this information is propagated throughout the network whenever a new user connects. VLANs on the switch help create separate broadcast domains at the switch level. It is used for security purposes.

97) What is IPv6?

IPv6 or Internet Protocol version 6 was developed to replace IPv4. Currently, IPv4 is being used to control Internet traffic, but IPv4 is saturated. IPv6 can overcome this limitation.

98) What is the RSA algorithm?

RSA is an abbreviation for the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman algorithm. It is currently the most commonly used public key encryption algorithm.

99) What is a grid topology?

A mesh topology is a setting in which each device is directly connected to every other device on the network. Therefore, it requires each device to have at least two network connections.

100) What is the maximum segment length of the 100Base-FX network?

The maximum allowable length of a network segment using 100Base-FX is 412 meters. The maximum length of the entire network is 5 kilometers.